Euro Zone Bailout Fund Takes Flight
Cyprus chaos sparks calls for EU overhaul - USA TODAY
BERLIN (AP) — Engineering a financial bailout for Cyprus in March was such a chaotic process that top European officials say it is time to rethink how the region manages its crisis — and who should be involved.
Officials say the International Monetary Fund, which has contributed financial expertise and billions in emergency loans, may no longer be needed as a key decision-making partner. And they say that the eurozone would be able to make decisions and take action more quickly if it wasn't bound by the need for unanimous agreement among its 17 member countries.
Analysts and lawmakers outside of Europe have voiced these concerns before. Now two of the region's leading financial decision-makers have said publicly that something needs to be done. Olli Rehn, the top economic official at the European Commission — the European Union's executive arm — and Joerg Asmussen, who sits on the European Central Bank's six-member executive board, said at a hearing last week that the easing of the financial crisis presents an opportunity to fix what is broken.
"If the IMF can take decisions with an 85% majority and not with unanimity, why on earth the eurozone cannot do so?" Rehn asked, referring to the IMF's executive board. "That would make our decision-making more effective."
And Asmussen questioned whether help from the IMF — part of the "troika" of decision makers that also includes the ECB and the European Commission — is even needed anymore. In effect, he said it is time for Europe to handle its problems without outside help.
Commerzbank analyst Christoph Weil says European leaders are slowly waking up to what has been evident to financial markets for a long time. "The current decision structure is dysfunctional," Weil said. "It was born in the urgency of the crisis ... It needs to be overhauled."
The 17-country eurozone has been severely tested by a three-year crisis over too much government debt which has necessitated bailouts for five member nations — Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Cyprus.
The "troika" arrangement to monitor the bailout process has been in place for eurozone bailouts since Greece's debt problems began to unfold in 2010. The setup gives a prominent role to the Washington-based IMF — although it contributes much less money to bailouts than the eurozone nations.
Some eurozone member countries insisted on having the IMF on board for its experience in handling such crises around the world. Germany — Europe's biggest economy — also saw the fund's presence as a crucial check against political horse-trading that could have resulted in watered-down bailout conditions.
However, the troika's inspection teams have been heavily criticized for their insistence on harsh austerity measures that have plunged countries like Greece or Portugal into even deeper recessions and that they're not accountable to voters.
"The Europeans wanted the IMF aboard for its expertise, even though many at the IMF thought that Europe is economically strong enough to solve its problems on its own," said analyst Weil.
"Now the Europeans feel stronger, and they realize that it would have been easier sometimes without the IMF, who insisted on radical up-front measures in Greece or Cyprus before granting aid," he added.
This view was given a boost last week by the ECB's Asmussen during a hearing at the European Parliament's economic committee in Brussels.
"I would not change the troika system in the midst of the crisis because we have no alternative available right now but in the longer-term future ... we should return to a fully EU-based system," he said.
The IMF recognizes it's up to the EU's executive arm, the Commission, and the ECB whether it has plays a role in future bailouts, fund spokesman Gerry Rice said.
"I understand from reports that Mr. Asmussen underscored that he would not advise to change the troika system right now," he said.
In place of the IMF, Asmussen suggested the eurozone could use the body set-up to manage its permanent 500 billion-euro rescue fund, the European Stability Mechanism. However, the ESM's makeup means it is technically outside the EU's system of institutions.
"The setup is a bit of a stranger decided in a crisis mood," Asmussen said. "We had nothing else available and it had to be done quickly," he added.
The end of the troika arrangement would come once the ESM will be fully turned into an institution of the 27-nation EU, he added. The ESM could then play its role as Europe's IMF.
As well as the IMF's role in international rescues, the Eurogroup -- finance ministers of 17 member nations, the IMF and the ECB -- is coming under scrutiny.
The Eurogroup was initially planned mostly as a forum to exchange views on economic and financial policies — but the crisis has turned it into a major decision-making body. At the moment, unanimity is required on...>