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    Italian political slang dictionary: what does Bunga Bunga mean?

    Taken from the English. In Italian financial circles, it is most often used to refer to the price difference between Italian 10-year bonds and benchmark German bunds. "Lo spread" spread beyond those circles to become a ubiquitous buzzword in 2011

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Italian political slang dictionary: what does Bunga Bunga mean? - Telegraph.co.uk

CASTA

Originally meaning caste, the word now refers to a clique of politicians keeping a grip on privilege and power. It was a favourite term of the 5-Star Movement that stormed to 25 per cent of the vote in its first national election, promising to kick the 'casta' out of parliament.

CELODURISMO (I HAVE IT HARDISM)

From the catchphrase of regionalist party the Northern League – "The League has it hard". It refers to macho posturing and "the assumption of aggressive or decisive political attitudes, at the cost of appearing crude or coarse".

COMPRAVENDITA (PURCHASE AGREEMENT)

Paying MPs to switch sides in parliament to shore up or undermine a government. In a current 'compravendita' investigation, former Senator Sergio De Gregorio told officials he accepted 3 million euros from Berlusconi to change sides and topple the centre-left government in 2006.

ESODATI (EXILED ONES)

Workers who voluntarily took early retirement but found themselves without a stipend because of a 2011 pension reform that raised the retirement age. A combustible political issue, particularly following several suicides of people affected.

GRILLING

The supporters of former comic and 5-Star founder Beppe Grillo, meaning 'little Grillos' or 'little crickets'. In Italy, the insects are associated with speaking uncomfortable truths.

INCIUCIO

The word for a deal done under the table, particularly between supposedly rival political groups. It leapt in usage in April 2013 as opposing centre-left and centre-right groups in parliament zoned in on an agreement that would allow them to share power.

OLGETTINE

Term for 14 young women housed at Berlusconi's expense at number 65 via Olgettina in Milan. They were frequent guests at parties at the home of the former prime minister.

PIANISTA

A 'pianist' uses the vote of an absent adjacent parliamentarian as well as his own, by stretching out his arm to press the voting button on his colleague's desk.

SPREAD

Taken from the English. In Italian financial circles, it is most often used to refer to the price difference between Italian 10-year bonds and benchmark German bunds. "Lo spread" spread beyond those circles to become a ubiquitous buzzword in 2011, referring broadly to Italy's precarious financial position.

"Enough with this talk of the spread," Berlusconi declared in February 2013. "We lived happily for years without worrying about it. It's an invention of two years ago."

Edited for Telegraph.co.uk by Barney Henderson

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